Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are carbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources.
Granulated, white, extra fine or regular sugar is a highly refined sugar produced from sugar canes or sugar beets. It is available in cubes and tablets, with textures of various types and sizes. This is the sugar normally found in every home's sugar bowl.
When people hear the word “sugar” they often think of the familiar sweetener in the sugar bowl. That sugar is sucrose and is the most familiar form of sugar to home bakers. But there are many types of sugars, which scientists classify according to their chemical structure.
The food that we call sugar is a carbohydrate (car-bow-hy-drate) called sucrose (soo-krose), which is made up from 2 smaller carbohydrates – fructose (fruk-toze) and glucose (gloo-coze). Glucose is used by our body for energy, and fructose is quickly changed into glucose in our body.